Document 1 :
Everywhere Sendge looked there were black faces. Some fighting tears, trembling and sweating. They were all frightened. As he lifted his head and looked around the hold, he realized how many of his countrymen were shackled there. And while there were lots of men, for the first time, Sendge realized that maybe half of them were women and children. What was this madness ? Why were they doing this ? Where were they going ?
Alexs D. Pate, Amistad, 1997
1) Observe document 1 and introduce it :
>>This is an extract from a novel, entitled "Amistad". It was written by Alexs D. Pate and was published in 1997. (Ça suffit.)
2) What did you understand ? (characters, place, time)
>>Sendge is the main character. He is undoubtedly a black man. There are many people with him, and they are all black. We realize that they are on a ship because of the word "hold". There is no indication of the time period in Document 1.
3) What impression do you have ?
>>We have the impression that they are prisoners because they are shackled.
4) Imagine the living conditions aboard.
>> They are obviously ill-treated because they are chained to each other.It is unlikely that they have eaten. They must be very uncomfortable being in an area usually reserved for animals.
5) Who is the narrator ? What about the point of view ?
>> The narrator is omniscient : he is not one of the characters in the story, but he knows all about them and their circumstances.
Document 2 :
The American Civil War (1861-1895) was the conflict between the Northern states and the Southern states of the the United States of America : the Union and the Confederacy. The Confederacy was composed of eleven States in the South which had seceded from the Union to defend a way of life based on slavery and free trade. The Confederates lost. All the slaves were emancipated in 1863 by a presidential mandate, actually freed in 1865, and given equal voting rights in 1870.
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION, JANUARY 1, 1863
"Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free."
1) Observe document 2 . What is it composed of ?
>>This document is composed of an excerpt from the Emancipation Proclamation and a quote from Abraham Lincoln.
2) What does the first part present the reader ?
>> In the first part of the Emancipation Proclamation, Abraham Lincoln, the president of the United States identifies himself.
3) What is the nature of the second part? Justify your answer.
>> In the second part of that document, the president declares that all slaves, in whatever Southern state they may be located, are to be set free.
4) Identify the "passives", explain the "shall".
>> There is one passive in this document : shall be free.
Shall is the emphatic form of the future and is the equivalent of an imperative.
5) What sort of verbs are used ?
>> This document uses the verbs order and declare, both of which are very strong imperatives.
The force of both verbs is increased by the use of the auxiliary do.