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Doudou



Nombre de messages : 1286
Localisation : New-York
Date d'inscription : 26/12/2005

MessageSujet: POUR KIRIKOU   Dim 2 Déc - 15:55

Loads of theories about the origin of Polynesian migration have been suggested. Some have claimed that they came from America or even the ??? However, the most probable hypothesis nowadays is that our ancestors come from southeast Asia. In fact, the archeological artefacts such as the Lapita pottery or botany from southeast Asia have been found. What is the reason for these migrations and when did they take place?

The Polynesian exodus can be accounted for by several waves of mass migration over several centuries. The first wave began with the Australian aborigines from the Indo-Malaysian peninsula during the last glaciation some 11,000 to 8000 years before the common era. Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea were colonised between 35,000 and 53,000 CE. 35,000 years ago, Papuan and Melanesian aborigines reached the Solomon Isles in Fiji and ended up in New Caledonia.

Around 4000 BCE, "Austronesians" arrived. Then from 1600 to 1500 BCE, the second wave began. The ancestors of the Polynesians left South Asia to explore the oriental Pacific: from Micronesia and Melanesia until they reached the Occidental Pacific around 1000 BCE. A century later, the Polynesian migration continued from the Marquises, somewhere in the middle all these migrations.

The last wave of immigration took place again in the Marquises about 100 BCE, the Society Islands, Tahiti, and Hawaii about 300-400 CE, followed by Easter Island between 400 and 500 CE, New Zealand between 700 and 800 CE, Austral Archipelago about 900-1000, and finally the Tuamotu Islands towards the 12th century. They came from the Polynesian Triangle.

Navigation on the high seas:

The populating of the Polynesian islands is linked to the art of navigation practiced by these people and their knowledge of the seas and the sky. Their knowledge of navigation lay on for the most part on their powers of observation of wind and sea currents and the migration of birds. Since during that period of time, they had no navigation tools at their disposition tools of navigation, Polynesian migration had largely been attributed to luck. However, today we now know that it was linked to the meticulous nature of their observations. And their ability to navigate was passed down over the centuries in the songs they sang.. So heir knowledge in this domain was very precise and reliable. Their journeys could last months or even centuries. These migrations made the Polynesians a great maritime population, which they remain even today.

Techniques:

First of all, their explorations were made to discover islands suitable for settling. That they accomplished all of this by their observations of astral and solar trajectories at night and wind currents by day was truly an amazing exploit. But just setting out to sea was not enough. They had to know when an island was near. Several techniques very subtle techniques were used. The presence of birds indicated a nearby island, and according to the species, they could estimate how far away from the islandthey were. The color of the sea might may also have signaled the approach of an island the depth of the sea bottom signaled the proximity of an island.

Means of navigation used:

Plenty means of navigation were used such as pirogue of different sizes, shapes, and materials as well as big canoes. The size of the pirogues depended on the length of time spent on the water. Some vessels even had a huge built-in oven upon which to cook.

Tools and food used on board:

The immigrants transported the plants and animals they made use of both to feed themselves during the journey and to populate the island with. Their food included the bread fruit, fresh and dried fish or dried ones, taro, yams, sweet potatos, a certain type of banana, cane sugar, and coconuts to satisfy their thirst. They also transported dogs, chickens, pigs. Of course, they brought fresh water with them too. Their fishing tools provided them with food during the journey.

The life aboard ship:

Each one had a specific, pre-assigned task upon which the survival of the team depended. Some were responsible for bailing out water from the catamaran to allow for the weight of the two hulls. Others were responsible for navigating the vessel. Finally, there were those who had to manage the sails.
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